Common car sensors and what they do

Crankshaft Position Sensor: A crank sensor is an electronic device used in both petrol and diesel engines to monitor the position or rotational speed of the crankshaft.
Oxygen Sensor: An oxygen sensor (or lambda sensor) measures the proportion of oxygen (O2) in the air-fuel mixture. O2 sensors make modern electronic fuel injection and emission control possible by helping determine in real time if the air–fuel ratio of a combustion engine is optimal.
Throttle position Sensor: Throttle Position Sensor reports the gas pedal position to the car’s computer, aiding in the calculation of proper fuel/air mixture in the engine.

Mass Air Flow Sensor: All cars take air from the outside and pass it into the engine through the air filter. The airflow sensor measures the amount of air entering the engine.
Intake Air Temperature Sensor: The Intake Air Temperature sensor (IAT) monitors the temperature of the air entering the engine. The engine computer needs this information to estimate air density so it can balance air air/fuel mixture
Fuel injector: Fuel injection is a system for introducing fuel into automotive engines. On diesel engines, fuel injection is a necessity, whilst on petrol engines fuel injection is an alternative to the carburetor.
Vehicle Speed Sensor: Vehicle Speed Sensor (VSS) measures the speed of a vehicle’s wheel rotation
Manifold Pressure Sensor: The manifold pressure sensor (MAP sensor) provides pressure information of the air intake into the engine
Engine Coolant Temperature Sensor: The coolant temperature sensor is used to measure the temperature of the engine coolant of an internal combustion engine. The readings from this sensor are then used to adjust the fuel injection and ignition timing.
Turbocharger/Supercharger: A turbocharger, or turbo increases an engine’s efficiency and power output by forcing extra air into the engine combustion chamber

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